IEA (2023). Energy Technology RD&D Budgets: Overview (

Includes spending on demonstration projects (i.e. RD&D) wherever reported by governments as defined in IEA documentation; 2022 is a preliminary estimate based on data available by mid-May 2022; state-owned enterprise funds comprise a significant share of the Chinese total, for which the 2022 estimate is based on reported company spending where available; IEA estimates for countries including India and Russia include state-owned enterprise R&D, which was not included in WEI 2022; the IEA Secretariat has estimated US data from public sources. To see an animated version of this graph, click here.

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